Biomass

Figure 1. Rice chaffs, shown above, are an example of one type of biomass.[1]

Biomass is the general term for material whose origin is living, or recently dead organisms. The most common example of biomass as a fuel is wood, which is often burned in its direct form.[2] Biomass can also be converted into biofuel. This is often done with corn, which is converted into ethanol.

Biomass is composed of a variety of organic molecules that are carbon based, containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and small numbers of other atoms.[2] The carbon in this biomass originated from the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Plant life absorbs this carbon dioxide, using energy from the Sun, and thus the carbon is contained in plant matter. If animals eat these plants, the plants are used by the animals and converted into animal biomass. If plant material isn't eaten, it is either broken down by micro-organisms or burned.[2] This is how the carbon is returned into the carbon cycle.

There are a few different categories of biomass, including:[2]

  • Virgin wood: wood obtained from forestry or wood processing, this can include bark and sawdust[2]
  • Processed wood: wood that has undergone some transformation like pyrolysis, this can include charcoal
  • Energy crops: crops grown specifically for energy purposes
  • Agricultural residues: residues from agriculture harvesting, including animal dung
  • Food waste: waste from the production and processing of food products
  • Industrial waste: waste from manufacturing

Biomass for Energy

Biomass is an important alternative source of energy, because while burning it does release carbon, the carbon is all recent and so is part of our current carbon cycle. Because of this, biomass is effectively carbon neutral, meaning it doesn't add any carbon to our atmosphere that wasn't already there. This is different from burning fossil fuels, which release stored carbon, which is millions of years old, adding it to our current carbon cycle, and increasing the total amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

Biomass is commonly used as a fuel in underdeveloped countries for cooking and heat, but even in developed countries like Canada, biomass is used to create electricity. At times, Alberta generates more than 3% of its electricity from biomass.[3]

There is a distinct different in the types of biomass used in different areas around the world. More developed countries use biomass like virgin wood and energy crops for energy, especially for use as biofuels. Comparatively, developing countries use primarily agricultural residues (especially animal dung) and virgin wood (although more frequently in the form of charcoal). These types of biofuels are used by people who often lack access to non-solid fuel, and the use of these fuels often has significant health concerns.

Interactive graph

The graph below shows energy production by energy type for countries around the world. Search for or click on different countries to see how much biomass they produce as a fraction of their total energy production. To see countries that use a great deal of biomass, look for less developed countries.

References

  1. Wikimedia Commons. (August 21, 2015). Rice Chaffs Biomass [Online]. Available: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Rice_chaffs.jpg
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Biomass Energy Centre. (August 21, 2015). What is Biomass? [Online]. Available: http://www.biomassenergycentre.org.uk/portal/page?_pageid=76,15049&_dad=portal
  3. CNS. (August 21, 2015). Alberta Electricity [Online]. Available: http://media.cns-snc.ca/albertaelectricity/albertaelectricity.html

Authors and Editors

Jordan Hanania, James Jenden, Kailyn Stenhouse, Jason Donev